Maison fondée en 1953
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Glossary

A

Aging : there are different steps in the wine’s life; from the barrel to bottling. During aging the “bouquet” of wine is created.

American oak : oak used for the aging of wine especially in the USA and Spain. The pores are bigger than those of European oak. American oak gives a nuance of vanilla to the wine.

B

Bag in box : container used for wine. Usually it is a plastic bag with tap in a wooden packing. It can be made in different sizes.

Barrel : wood container of different capacities. It is used to contain wine or different kind of alcohol. Frenck oak barrel, acacia or chestnut tree used to store, to carry or to make wine. For example 225L in region of Bordeaux, 232L in Touraine region, 228L in Bourgogne region...

Bending : light toast made to avoid breaking staves in the bilge part of the barrel and giving a nice shape.

Bilge : the biggest diameter of the barrel.

Bilge hoop : hoop used to protect the middle part of the barrel where is located the bung hole.

Block of wood : part of the tree. Name given to pieces of wood obtained by successive parallel cut to the axle of the undressed timber.

Bonding : step which consists in putting the staves together for the composition of the barrel. The largest stave is selected for the bung hole.

Bousinage : main toast for a barrel. It reinforces its solidity, reduces quantity of tannins and creates aromas that barrel will bring to the wine.

Bung : bung hole. It is a hole drilled in the middle of the stave called "bung stave". The bung is the name for wooden tap, cork tap or silicon tap closing the hole.

C

Capstan : winch with a vertical axle and a cable used for bending barrels.

Cask : it is a unit capacity. For example a 900L barrel in the region of Bordeaux refers to 100 boxes of 12 bottles of 75 cl.

Chips : wooden waste of oak used for fermentation and aging of wine.

Cooperage : art and business of a cooper. The one who manufactures barrels or other containers made in wood to store and preserve liquids.

E

"Evidage" : to plane the stave in the intern side.

"Ecourtage" : to shorten the both end of a " merrain " in order to obtain the right length for the future stave. End of " merrain" is often composed of defects or bacterial infection.

F

Fermentation : process in which bacteria change sugars contained in grapes to pur ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide.

Final hoop : galvanized or brass hoop set up during the finishing to maintain the staves of the barrel.

Fonçage: action which consists in putting the head of the barrel.

G

Galvanized material : a large roll of metal in which hoops are cut for barrels. Hoops are used to protect the barrel against shocks and make it leakproof.

Groove : made at the both end of the barrel in order to insert the head.

H

Head of barrel : rounded piece of wood which close the barrel at the end.

Hoop : circular piece surrounding the staves of a barrel which maintains and protects it.

I

ISO 22000:2005 : International Standards Organization referred to Food Safety Management System.

L

Loose-grained wood : quality of wood used by coopers according to the growth of the tree and thickness of grain. When circles are loose the growth is fast.

M

Medium-grained wood : in the USA the grain of wood is measured in reference to the number of circles per inch. Medium-grained wood is referred to 14 growth circles per inch.

"Merrain" : name of the piece of wood split in the grain which is used to manufacture barrels. It does not have to be composed of knots. The " merrain " dries at open air.

"Mise en rose" : putting staves together with a metal hoop.

O

Oak : the first material for manufacturing barrels. The French oak makes the aging of wine and " eaux de vie " easier by giving a part of its tannins to the wine.

Oak fermentation vats : large-sized container used to store the harvest for fermentation or for the aging of wine.

P

Paraffin : a white odourless and tasteless compound with hydrocarbons which can melt at 50° C. The paraffin is used to protect wood.

"Pas d'asse" : intern part of a barrel located next to the groove.

Pedunculate oak : variety of oak we find everywhere in France and especially in the region of Limousin.

"Peigne" : the beveled part of a barrel located between the " pas d'asse " and the extremity of the barrel.

Q

Quarter : name given to the piece of wood after splitting the trunk.

R

Rouvre oak : a variety of oak we can find everywhere in France and mainly in Tronçais forest.

S

Sapwood : part of the wood located just under the bark.

Sessile oak : has a slower growth than the pedunculate oak. This big and beautiful tree is one main component of French forests.

Split : step which consists in obtaining quarter of wood.

Stave : main element of a barrel made in oak.

T

Tannin : a vegetal substance coming from oak.

Tight-grained wood : quality of wood used by coopers according to the growth of the tree and thickness of grain. When circles are tight the growth is slow.

To cut down : step which consists in preparing the extremities of a barrel to insert the bottoms.

To bevel : process which consists in bevelling staves in their length in order to guarantee a perfect leakproof during the staves assembling.

To plane : to plane the stave in the intern side.

To shorten : to shorten the both end of a " merrain " in order to obtain the right length for the future stave. End of " merrain" is often composed of defects or bacterial infection.

To wash a barrel in hot water : to control the leakproof of a barrel.

Toasting : all barrels are toasted on wood fire to make them more flexible and to give the aroma.

Toasting hoop : temporary hoop used for bending and toasting the barrel and to maintain it. Then these hoops are replaced by the new ones.

Traceability : the way to know the origin and components of a product.

U

Undressed timber : name given to the trunk of a tree which has been thinned out.

W

Warping : action to manufacture the extern side of the stave to give a rounded shape.

Wood supplier : artisan who is in charged of preparing wood for coopers.

Wooden piece : piece of wood fixed by wooden pins. It reinforces the head of the barrel and avoids the pressure of the liquid to break it.

Wooden pin : small sharpened wooden piece put inside the staves to maintain the head of the barrel.